The fly-over is allowed under a 2002 treaty that allows Russian Federation, the United States and more than 30 other countries to fly short-notice, unarmed flights in each other's territories.
The flight, which was filmed by The Associated Press, was permitted under the Open Skies Treaty.
Russian surveillance plane soared through secure airspace over Washington on Wednesday, presumably collecting intelligence as it traveled near the Pentagon, the Capitol and other government buildings, two USA officials said.
Russian Federation typically flies Open Skies missions over command infrastructure, key locations, and other critical infrastructure, a US official said.
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One of the officials said the Russian jet flew through the Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) airspace that was established around the golf club.
In practical terms, the treaty allows signatory states to perform observations flights over any part of the observed state party's territory to monitor military activities in conformity with the agreed quotas of such missions.
The Capitol Police issued an alert Wednesday that warned that an "authorized low-altitude aircraft" would enter restricted airspace between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m.
ABC News cited an unnamed USA official who said Russian Federation typically flies such aircraft over command and critical infrastructure.
Since the treaty entered into force in 2002, there have been more than 1,200 Open Skies flights. The treaty regulates observation flights procedures, establishes a mechanism of control over its observance, sets requirements to the aircraft and observation equipment. After each flight, the host nation gets a copy of any imagery taken by the observation aircraft. "We put together the flight plan and with a few exceptions - safety-wise or weather-wise - they are allowed to fly over pretty much the entire territory".