In their studies, two teams of scientists used the cosmological Lambda-Cold Dark Matter model, which stipulates that dark matter and dark energy comprise more than 95 percent of the universe, while the remaining 4.6 percent include the ordinary (Baryonic) matter consisting of protons, neutrons and electrons.
Astronomers have a problem when it comes to the mass in the universe; a lot of it is missing.
Dark matter is thought to permeate our universe, we just haven't been able to observe it yet.
The missing matter is made of particles called baryons which link galaxies together through filaments of hot, diffuse gas.
The teams, from the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and the Institute of Space Astrophysics in Orsay, France, found that the missing matter is linking galaxies through filaments made up of hot gas, dispersed over vast distances. To study with a simulated structure, goes exactly in a way of the dark matter.
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'There's no sweet spot - no sweet instrument that we've invented yet that can directly observe this gas, ' Professor Richard Ellis, an astrophysicist at University College London who was not involved in the study, told New Scientist. Both found evidence of gas filaments, and both teams' data suggested that this matter is much denser than the mean of the normal matter in the universe. This effect is essentially light left over from the Big Bang scattering off the particles in the gas. As the light travels, some of it scatters off the electrons in the gas, leaving a dim patch in the cosmic microwave background-our snapshot of the remnants from the birth of the cosmos.
Enter two separate teams of scientists to crack the case.
With a total of 260,000 pairs of such galaxies already explored, it turned out that in filamentary structures between them, baryonic matter is several times denser than elsewhere in the universe. They found out that long strands or threads of baryonic matter filaments are present in the space between the galaxies which act as a bridge between them.
"The missing baryon problem is solved", Tanimura told the magazine. "If this factor is included, our findings are very consistent with the other group".
Dr. Ralph Kraft, an astrophysicist from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center of Astrophysics at MA in US State, explained that, "Everybody sort of knows that it has to be there, but this is the first time that somebody - two different groups, no less - has come up with a definitive detection".