Alli, 22, missed England's subsequent group matches with a thigh injury following the victory over Tunisia but he is fit to start tonight's match as Ruben Loftus-Cheek makes way.
It is not yet clear how long Rodriguez is expected to be out for.
Colombia forward Radamel Falcao was furious after his side was eliminated from the World Cup Tuesday and blunt in handing out accusations of officiating bias in the loss to England.
On paper, England's tilt with Colombia at Moscow's intimate Spartak Stadium is more or less a wash - England is 12th in the Federation Internationale de Football Association rankings and Colombia is 16th, not that the rankings have meant much in an upset-heavy World Cup that's already seen Germany, Portugal, Argentina and Spain eliminated.
The attacking midfielder is a goal threat for his country, and his invention is a key part of Colombia's attack. With the "Fubo Premier" bundle, you will get access to all four of the World Cup soccer TV channels in most markets.
In an instant, the monkey was off England's back, and amid the fallout of this landmark victory came a sense that Southgate and his players may just be destined to make their mark here in Russian Federation. "We knew we had this game, even if it had to go to penalties, we knew we were capable of winning". We think the team has made every effort to progress.
There had been precious little drama - though much petulance - throughout most of normal time as a Colombia side shorn of injured playmaker James Rodriguez set out to defend.
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The woman, who had suffered serious head injuries, was rushed to Leratong Hospital in nearby Krugersdorp, where she remains. The woman was said to have no form of life but when a morgue attendant when to check her, she found her alive.
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"We were so unlucky not to go through in 90 minutes", said Kane, who also converted his shootout kick along with Marcus Rashford and Kieran Tripper. "England are a good team but we did not mind who it was we would face".
Best World Cup finish: Quarterfinals, 2014.
Uruguay, France, Brazil, Belgium, Russia, Croatia and Sweden have already booked a spot in the last 8 of the World Cup.
After four minutes of mayhem as Colombia protested, Kane kept his cool and smashed in his third spot kick of Russian Federation 2018.
After getting off to a rough World Cup start by losing to eventual group victor Japan, Colombia blasted Poland 3-0 and then took down Senegal 1-0 to book a ticket into the knockout round.
They are sure to be in Samara too, for the quarter-final that now follows; yet another tournament encounter with Sweden.
To get there, Croatia will need to beat quarter-final opponents Russian Federation, also on Sunday.
And on that basis, Southgate and his joyous England squad can reflect on a job well done.