Kavanaugh is expected to begin his tenure by hearing two cases dealing with matters of robbery and burglary.
Media captionDonald Trump's nominee has been embroiled in a bitter battle over sexual assault allegations.
Trump signed Kavanaugh's commission later Saturday, with Chief Justice John Roberts swearing in the new justice Saturday night. He jumped in with his first question after most of the other justices had spoken.
"Every American can be assured that I will be an independent and impartial justice", Kavanaugh said in the White House East Room after a ceremonial swearing-in.
There were no disruptions in the courtroom.
The new justice's wife and two daughters were in seats reserved for justices' guests, along with retired Justice Anthony Kennedy.
Tuesday - Kavanaugh will join the bench for the first time. All five will also have been chosen by presidents who initially ascended to the White House after losing the popular vote (though George W. Bush did win it during reelection).
There was a long line of people hoping to see Kavanaugh's first appearance. Police barricades are up in front of the court, but the few protesters on hand are congregating near the garage where the justices enter. Kennedy was a more moderate conservative who sometimes sided with the court's four liberal justices. Kavanagh has denied all the allegations.
Kavanaugh, in turn, attacked the Dem senators on the Senate Judiciary Committee for what he called an orchestrated "hit" meant to exact revenge for the Clintons, warning the Dems on the committee "what goes around comes around".
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"I want to apologize to Brett and the entire Kavanaugh family for the pain and suffering you have been forced to endure", Mr. Trump said.
Senator Chris Coons of DE called impeachment talk "premature", while House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi said it "would not be my plan" to impeach the justice.
Justice Kavanaugh, acknowledging the "contentious and emotional" fight over his confirmation, said he had "no bitterness" and promised to "always be a team player on the team of nine". They included a case about a potential habitat for an endangered frog and another about an Alabama death row inmate whose lawyers argue he shouldn't be executed because dementia has left him unable to remember his crime.
While experts believe these will probably not provide close votes, Kavanaugh missed a case regarding an endangered frog that seemed to divide the court.
As the newest member of the court Kavanaugh will take on a few special jobs.
One could, of course, reasonably explain some of this by pointing out that the Senate and the electoral college were designed as they were, and that the much more divided confirmations of recent justices reflect a broader trend, that is, hyperpolarization.
He'll also sit on the committee that oversees the court's cafeteria, which is open to the public.