Scientists have been divided in their response to the claims, with some praising the goal of eliminating HIV and others warning that such human experimentation is risky and unethical.
But he apologised that his research "was leaked unexpectedly". In the United Kingdom, for example, the use of genome editing would be regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, and would now be illegal. The US-trained scientist said the twins were born earlier this month.
"But if what he has done is to edit human embryos, and for them to be carried through to birth... there is a real risk of so-called off-target effects", he added.
The news of the twins' births rocked the scientific community this week and CalTech biology professor David Baltimore, a Nobel laureate who also chairs the summit organizing committee, took the unusual measure of prefacing the question and answer session with He by taking a moment to call his work "irresponsible". And in a separate interview with STAT, an American media outlet focused on health and science, Church said that considering the data he's seen from He's team, their claim of having produced the first HIV-resistant offspring through genetic engineering seems "pretty accurate".
"I think there is an emerging worldwide consensus that this research should progress, that we need to be open-minded about how it could be applied in the future, but we're not at the state right now where we want to be using this technology in the clinic", he said from Edmonton. We only found out about it after it happened, and after the children were even born.
"I think we do that with some risk".
"The volunteers were informed of the risk posed by the existence of one potential off-target and they made a decision to implant", he said. Scientists have also expressed fears of a slippery slope into a future where designer babies are genetically engineered at whim.
His claims have set off a firestorm of skepticism and criticism.
Scientist He Jiankui attends the International Summit on Human Genome Editing at the University of Hong Kong
Its assistant director Pete Mills said: 'If the claims are true, it is a premature, inexplicable and possibly reckless intervention that may threaten the responsible development of future applications of genome editing'. And we will have time, just as we did when other expensive medical landmarks occurred - heart transplants, test tube babies, and somatic gene therapy.
But Daley argued that a consensus was a emerging that "if we can solve the scientific challenges, it may be a moral imperative that it should be permitted".
"I do think the principle of self-regulation is defensible", he says. Scientists have long searched for ways to block this pathway to protect people from HIV. He doesn't have a genetics or human health background at all. "Conducting direct human experiments can only be described as insane", the scientists said in their letter, a copy of which was posted by the Chinese news website the Paper.
Dr. Matthew Porteus, a genetics researcher at Stanford University, where He did postdoctoral research, said He told him in February that he meant to try human gene editing.
"So far the main response within China is to condemn and criticize this work", said Jing-Bao Nie, an expert on Chinese bioethics at the University of Otago in New Zealand.
In a statement on Monday, the country's National Health Commission said that it is "paying close attention to reports of the experiment" and demanded that "local health authorities release information to the public in a timely manner".
If gene editing is ever allowed, many scientists have said it should be reserved to treat and prevent serious inherited disorders with no good alternatives, such as sickle cell anemia and Huntington's disease.
China is a major scientific power.
The edited DNA would eventually enter the general population as it passed on through generations.
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