Taylor clouted Taijul Islam for six over the long-on boundary to bring up his century which took him past his mentor, the late Martin Crowe, to become New Zealand's second most prolific century-maker with 18, two behind Kane Williamson.
Henry Nicholls has brought up his fifth test century and Ross Taylor his third double century.
New Zealand reached 38 for two in reply to Bangladesh's first innings 211 after the first two days were washed out.
In the face of Wagner's relentless bouncer barrage, Bangladesh were all out for 209 to give New Zealand victory by an innings and 12 runs to go with their innings and 52-run win in the first Test.
He wasn't on the field at the end, resting because of a shoulder injury while wicketkeeper B.J. Watling also had to be replaced by a substitute fielder on the final day.
Tim Southee is captaining the side as Williamson has yet to return to the field with a shoulder injury. "Then we had to score quickly to have a chance of a result in this game going in our favor".
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After completing the double century, Taylor was dismissed by Mustafizur Rahman in the following over when he tried a big hit. "We didn't see it unfolding as it did".
Captain Mahmudullah was the penultimate wicket to fall after top-scoring with 67, while Neil Wagner's dismissal of No 11 Ebadat Hossain secured victory for New Zealand and personal figures of a 5-45. New Zealand will be desperately hoping that nothing serious comes out in the scans. When the covers finally came off the Basin Reserve pitch on the third day and after two days of steady rain it was bright green, bouncy, and ideally suited to seam bowling.
"I told Hogan (Crowe) "my apologies" for taking so long to get there", said Taylor who scored his 17th century in 2017, almost two years after Crowe died from cancer.
Taylor, who was dropped twice on 20, featured in a 172-run stand with Kane Williamson for the third wicket and shared a 216-run partnership with Henry Nicholls for the fourth.
Mohammad Mithun and Soumya Sarkar ensured Bangladesh didn't lose anymore wickets as they forged an unbeaten 25-run partnership before stumps was called.
"It it was a World Cup final and we needed him [Watling] to be out there he would have gone out, but we thought with the next test match further down the track there was no point in risking him".