Calling it "unnecessary, risky attempt to weaken my constitutional authorities", Mr Trump struck down the resolution that was passed by a majority of lawmakers in the House and Senate this year. It is the second time that Mr Trump has used his veto power since entering the White House.
The resolution passed the House on a 247-175 vote and the Senate by 54-46 - both far short of the needed two-thirds majority. The resolution had invoked the War Powers Act to distance the United States from the conflict in Yemen, which began in 2014. All the while, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman has been implicated in the killing of Jamal Khashoggi, a US resident and journalist critical of the regime.
In a statement Tuesday night, Pelosi called on Trump to "put peace before politics".
The statement described the congressional action as "a joint resolution that purports to direct the President to remove United States Armed Forces from hostilities in or affecting the Republic of Yemen, with certain exceptions".
The president also argued the resolution would "harm the foreign policy of the United States" and "harm our bilateral relationships".
Democratic Congressman Ro Khanna, sponsor of the resolution, said Trump was "risking the lives of millions of Yemeni civilians to starvation, deadly airstrikes, and the war crimes of the Saudi regime". "Yet the President has cynically chosen to contravene a bipartisan, bicameral vote of the Congress and perpetuate America's shameful involvement in this heartbreaking crisis".
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"The question now, can the Congress figure out how to reverse the veto and have this resolution take effect in a couple of weeks' time", she said.
Rep. Ro Khanna (D-Calif.), who helped lead the House effort to end US military involvement in Yemen, denounced Trump's veto on Twitter.
The four-year-long civil war in Yemen, which pits the Saudi-led coalition against Houthi rebels backed by Iran, has killed tens of thousands of people and spawned what the United Nations calls the world's most dire humanitarian crisis, with the country on the brink of starvation.
Kaine accused Trump of turning a blind eye to Khashoggi's killing and the jailing of women's rights activists in Saudi Arabia. "I hope my colleagues will show we won't tolerate the Trump administration's deference to Saudi Arabia at the expense of American security interests by voting to override this veto", Kaine said. McCaul said it was an abuse of the war powers resolution and predicted it could disrupt US security cooperation agreements with more than 100 countries.
Just last month he overrode a congressional resolution that aimed to reverse the national emergency he declared in order to obtain funding for wall at the Mexican border.
David Miliband, President of the International Rescue Committee, a humanitarian aid group, said: "This veto by President Trump is morally wrong and strategically wrongheaded".